The United States, after annexing the Philippines, saw that they had opened up a doorway to China, which had a vital economic market for the growing output of America’s industrializing economy. Secretary John Hay, a supporter of the Open Door policy, saw the prospect that the United States would be shut out from any control in China as the Europeans and Japanese started establishing thriving settlements along the coast of China in hopes of stronger footholds in the country and a larger territorial gain. Fearing that China would be carved into colonies and that American traders would be shout out, John Hay saw the need for preserving access to the China market. In response to the Japanese and European thirst for control in China , Hay dispatched the Open Door Notes, series of letters that went out to leaders of the leaders of the imperialist countries, demanding that each of the countries respect the principle of equal commercial opportunity in the midst of the spheres of influence that was strengthening in China. (AFR) In other words, the nations present in China were asked to share trading rights with United States, and no other nation could have a monopoly on trade with any part of China. The Open Door policy stated the door to trade in china had to remain open to everyone who wished to pass through. In sense, the policy was fair: it gave everyone equal opportunities to invest in China and it disallowed nations to control trade in China. The Open Door policy pressed for greater impartiality and accountability for all nations.

            After the Russian-Japanese War in China in 1905, the Japanese were able to replace the Russian influence in Manchuria. The US and Japanese governments pledged to keep a policy of equality in Manchuria. As a result, an international banking consortium was made in the American effort to preserve the Open Door policy. Through the consortium, Chinese railroad loans were made, while benefiting the United States. But the consortium violated the Open Door policy, and after four years, the United States withdrew the consortium. (McKee, Delber) This shows that the Open Door policy had a colossal effect on China—without this policy, the United States would’ve been allowed to continue to do what they were doing. It also shows the policy was fair because the United States acknowledged that certain market rights were violated, which caused them to stop. This also shows how the policy pushed for greater accountability in their actions in China.

            Another incident that showed the policy was fair was when Japan, during 1917, made secret treaties between them and the Allies, which promised Japan the German possessions in China. But because of the fairness of Open Door policy which called for greater accountability, Japan assured the United States that the Open Door would be respected, even with their ongoing special interests in China. (USH) This shows that the Open Door was fair to all nations because it limited what countries could’ve done in China with trading and influence of trade. It was the direct effect of the Open Door which stopped Japan from having a greater opportunity in China. The Open Door policy, in this specific incident, made sure that all countries in China still had a equal chance of trading and business. Without the Open Door policy, Japan would’ve easily taken over in terms of trading.

             The Open Door policy also showed its effectiveness in making sure every country had equal trading opportunity in China. In 1915, Japan showed presented the Chinese government the 21-Demands. The document demanded that China regularize Japanese gains in Shandong and elsewhere. It also demanded to allow Japan to control most of China's key natural resources, buy at least half its armaments from Japan, allow Japanese police to manage in various key locations—arrangements that would have given Japan a lot of control in China. Because of this event, an Open Door policy violation was immediately recognized by the United States, and thus—Japan’s intended actions were immediately shut down. (Edsitement)  This shows that the Open Door was fair because it prohibited Japan from potentially creating large control in China—something that the Open Door sought to prevent. As a result of the Open Door, it made sure Japan didn’t unfairly take over in China and still allowed for other European countries to use China’s market.

            In conclusion, the Open Door was a policy created in the United States was fair for all nations. It allowed all the nations to compete competitively in trading and business in the weak and fragile China. The Open Door policy was a means for less imperialism and fairer opportunities for all the nations who were not imperialistic. The “open door” created by the United States made sure that no single nation would have a monopoly on trade with any part of China. The Open Door effectively did this even though several countries tried to violate it, such as Japan. But overall, the Open Door policy was a means for greater opportunity for trade in China for all nations. 

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